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, Differentiated Instruction and RtI
/ by Vicki Gibson
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By Vicki Gibson, Ph.D.

Practically speaking, differentiating instruction means teaching differently, or changing how instruction and practice occur in schools to enhance instructional effectiveness and increase student achievement. It means changing how we teach and how students practice using whole class and small group activities. It includes teaching and practice activities that are data-informed, student-focused, purposeful and productive. Classroom management is orderly and efficient. So, how do we make this happen in schools? We begin by changing our thinking, then our habits.

Imagine a school day that begins with a whole class activity. The teacher quickly reviews previously taught vocabulary or concepts or skills, engaging background information. Then, new information is presented as an overview as the teacher introduces key vocabulary word meanings and big ideas. The teacher uses a graphic organizer to summarize information and create a visual roadmap for the lesson journey enabling students to understand the instructional purpose …or why they are learning what they are learning, and how the information will be used in context.

The 10-15 minute overview ends and an orderly, quick transition occurs. One group of students participates in a teacher-led, small group lesson whose content and feedback are differentiated, specific to student need. How the teacher presents the lesson varies in response to diverse needs within each small group. While the lesson content or activity may be similar, instruction and pacing are adjusted, or differentiated, to enhance learning and comprehension.

Some students work independently at their desks or in assigned workspaces. Other students begin working in pre-assigned small study groups and/or with assigned peer partners. They complete guided practice activities from previously taught lessons. Students provide feedback to each other while the teacher works with another group.

Everyone is actively engaged in learning and all work is purposeful and productive. In about 20 minutes, a signal is provided and students change activities, some working with the teacher and others completing activities in small study groups or independently. Group memberships, activities and/or assignments may change. All students do not receive the same instruction, nor do they complete the same assignments at the same time.

While this may be easy to imagine, making it happen in classrooms can be challenging. This article defines organizational features of differentiating instruction that will help teachers and students establish routines and procedures for managing simultaneously occurring activities that include whole class and small group differentiated instruction and collaborative and/or independent practice.

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Thierry Henry and Eden Hazard console emotional Neymar following Belgium's victory over Brazil in World Cup quarter-finals

Brazil crashed out of the World Cup after losing 2-1 to Belgium on Friday night REPORT: Kevin De Bruyne wins World Cup quarter-final with scintillating strike Brazil star Neymar showed his emotions following the final whistle in Kazan

By Jonathan Spencer For Mailonline

Published: 18:51 EDT, 6 July 2018 | Updated: 08:12 EDT, 7 July 2018

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They may have just booked their place in the World Cup semi-finals , but Thierry Henry and Eden Hazard were quickly on hand to comfort Neymar after Belgium beat Brazil .

The Red Devils overcame the tournament favourites 2-1 on Friday in Kazan, thanks to an own-goal from Fernandinho and a fierce strike from Manchester City's Kevin De Bruyne .

And after another World Cup campaign ended in disappointment for Neymar, the Statement Clutch Summer Butterfly by VIDA VIDA MvWVRI
star was left inconsolable on the pitch at full-time.

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Thierry Henry and Eden Hazard consoled Neymar after Belgium beat Brazil 2-1 on Friday

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Henry was seen hugging an emotional Neymar before Hazard stepped in to replace him

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Chelsea winger Hazard impressed in the quarter-final clash against Neymar and Co

Belgium's and console at the final whistle

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But Neymar wasn't alone as Henry and Hazard very kindly consoled the emotional Brazilian at the Kazan Arena following the entertaining quarter-final clash.

Former Arsenal striker Henry was initially filmed hugging Neymar before Chelsea winger Hazard stepped in and comforted him instead.

Brazil were dumped out of the World Cup following a very impressive first-half display by Roberto Martinez's side.

Meanwhile, a job you hate can leave you prone to Modal Scarf Cornflowers by VIDA VIDA iShXYPFCsD
– so much so that when it comes to mental health, no job at all may be better than a thankless one.

Quitting one job after another may not be a bad thing either: despite commonly-held belief, frequently job-hopping can actually make you more successful. Economist Henry Siu found that young people who switched jobs more often earned higher salaries in later life. Of course, job-hoppers may just be more proactive overall – and Slim tie Brown blackberry knit with bobtail Notch GARVA Brown Notch btzhdBWsQ0
to secure a higher salary than staying put and begging for a raise. But Siu also posits another theory: by trying out different career paths, people may find their ‘true calling’ and therefore become more skilled and valuable, he says .

Job-hopping also may help you climb the career ladder. In one survey of 12,500 alumni of the Stanford Graduate School of Business, respondents who had fewer than two roles in 15 years had a 1 in 50 chance of becoming a top-level leader . Those who held five or more positions were nine times more likely to reach senior management. Head researcher Edward Lazear suggests that, to be a top leader, you may need a wide range of skills best provided (and proven) by a variety of roles.

Recent research has found that people who hustle on the side first ultimately have better-performing companies than people who jumped in feet-first

Not all research has borne out the same result. One study of 15,000 employees found that the more years an executive stayed with their company, the faster they got to the top. But the same research also found that switching industries or careers often proved to be a good move for respondents.

What about leaving to start your own company? Quit with caution, experts say. As we all know, a minority of new businesses make it . And despite the idea that you have to quit your day job and devote yourself 100% to ensure your endeavour succeeds, recent research has found that Gold Flower Earrings with Multicolor Swarovski Crystal Details Rodarte gczK80fD05
first ultimately have better-performing companies than people who jumped in feet-first.

They were all ‘quitters’: the study’s more cautious ‘hybrid entrepreneurs’ eventually walked away from their day jobs, too. But their patience paid off.

A former figure skater, Vera Wang was senior fashion editor at Vogue for 15 years and then a design director for Ralph Lauren before creating her own label (Credit: Getty Images)

Abandoning one job or path for another may bring greater rewards. Far from failure, pivoting can lead to success. Twitter started as a podcasting platform, YouTube as a dating website and Android as a camera operating system. Had they all stuck with their original vision, they likely wouldn’t be household names today.

There are two main categories for methods of downscaling. The first is “dynamical downscaling”. This is essentially running models that are similar to GCMs, but for specific regions. Because these Regional Climate Models (RCMs) cover a smaller area, they can have higher resolution than GCMs and still run in a reasonable time. That said, notes Dr Dann Mitchell , a lecturer in the School of Geographical Sciences at the University of Bristol , RCMs may be slower than their global counterparts:

“An RCM with 25km grid cells covering Europe would take around 5-10 times longer to run than a GCM at ~150 km resolution.”

The UK Climate Projections 2009 ( UKCP09 ), for example, is a set of climate projections specifically for the UK, produced from a regional climate model – the Met Office Hadley Centre’s Statement Bag Succulents by VIDA VIDA y3Bom
.

HadRM3 uses grid cells of 25km by 25km, thus dividing the UK up into 440 squares. This was an improvement over UKCP09’s predecessor (“ Black Large Backpack Marc Jacobs CZajL
”), which produced projections at a spatial resolution of 50km. The map below shows how the greater detail that the 25km grid (six maps to the right) affords than the 50km grid (two maps on far left),

RCMs such as HadRM3 can add a better – though still limited – representation of local factors , such as the influence of lakes, mountain ranges and a sea breeze.

Comparison of changes in seasonal average temperature, winter (top) and summer (bottom), by the 2080s under High Emissions scenarios, from UKCIP02 (far left panels) and as projected for UKCP09 at three probability levels (10, 50 and 90%). Darker red shading shows larger amounts of warming. © UK Climate Projections 2009

Despite RCMs being limited to a specific area, they still need to factor in the wider climate that influences it. Scientists do this by feeding in information from GCMs or observations. Taylor explains how this applies to his research in the Caribbean:

“For dynamical downscaling, you first have to define the domain that you are going to run the model over – in our case, we define a kind of Caribbean/intra-Americas domain – so we limit the modelling to that domain. But, of course, you feed into the boundaries of that domain the output of the large-scale models, so it’s the larger scale model information that drives then the finer-scale model. And that’s the dynamical downscaling – you’re essentially doing the modelling at a finer scale, but over a limited domain, fed in with information at the boundaries.”

It is also possible to “nest”, or embed, RCMs within a GCM, which means scientists can run more than one model at the same time and get multiple levels of output simultaneously.

The second main category of downscaling is “statistical downscaling”. This involves using observed data to establish a statistical relationship between the global and local climate. Using this relationship, scientists then derive local changes based on the large scale projections coming from GCMs or observations.

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